By Richard H. Groshong
Geological constructions are 3 dimensional, but are usually represented through, and - terpreted from, outcrop maps and constitution contour maps, either one of that are curved two-dimensional surfaces. Maps plus serial sections, referred to as 2½-D, supply a more in-depth method of 3 dimensionality. laptop know-how now allows for geological interpretations to be built from the start in an absolutely 3 dim- sional surroundings. totally 3-D geological versions let a lot better interpre- tions and interpretations which are a lot more straightforward to proportion with different geologists and with most people. This ebook presents an outline of ideas for developing structural interpretations in 2-D, 2½-D and three-D environments; for interpolating - tween and extrapolating past the regulate issues; and for validating the ultimate int- pretation. The underlying philosophy is that buildings are third-dimensional good our bodies and that facts from in the course of the constitution, no matter if in 2-D or 3-D layout, may be built-in into an internally constant three-D interpretation. it's assumed that almost all clients of this publication will do their paintings on a working laptop or computer. C- sequently, the e-book offers quantitative structural equipment and methods which are designed to be used with spreadsheets, mapping software program, and three-d c- puter-graphics courses. The e-book is usually meant to supply the heritage for knowing what interpretive software program, for instance, a working laptop or computer contouring p- gram, does instantly. such a lot concepts are offered in either a standard structure acceptable for paper, pencil, and a pocket calculator, and in quantitative layout to be used with spreadsheets and computer-graphics or computer-aided-design programs.
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Additional resources for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
5. 3-D oblique view of geologic map of Blount Springs area, from Fig. 4. Topography is shown as shaded relief map, without vertical exaggeration Fig. 6. Location in a deviated well. a Vertical section through a deviated well, in the northeast-southwest direction. Depths in the well are measured downward from the Kelly bushing (KB). True vertical depths (TVD) are calculated from the borehole deviation survey. b Map view of the deviated well. Locations of points down hole are given by their distance from the surface location.
The positions of points in three dimensions will be described in terms of a right-handed Cartesian coordinate system with +x = east, +y + = north, and +z = up. Dimensions will be given in feet and kilofeet or meters and kilometers, depending on the units of the original source of the data. Parts of a foot will be expressed as a decimal fraction. Unit conversions are a common source of error which are largely avoided by retaining the original units of the map or well log. The relationships between locations on a topographic map or well log and the xyzz coordinate system are given next.
1). On a topographic quadrangle map, the first digit or digits of the UTM coordinates are shown as a superscript and the last three zeros are usually omitted. Locations within the grid are given as the coordinates of the southwest corner of a block within the grid system. The x value is called the easting, and the y value is called the northing. For example, the lower left coordinate in Fig. 1, 518, is 518 000 m east of the origin. Any block can be subdivided into tenths in both the x and y directions, adding one significant digit to the coordinates of the sub-block.