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By Laura Garwin, Tim Lincoln, Steven Weinberg

A few of the medical breakthroughs of the 20th century have been first pronounced within the magazine Nature. A Century of Nature brings jointly in a single quantity Nature's maximum hits—reproductions of seminal contributions that modified technology and the realm, followed by way of essays written via major scientists (including 4 Nobel laureates) that supply ancient context for every article, clarify its insights in sleek, available prose, and have a good time the serendipity of discovery and the rewards of attempting to find needles in haystacks.

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Extra resources for A century of Nature: twenty-one discoveries that changed science and the world

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The upper lateral incisors do project forwards to some extent and perhaps also do the upper central incisors very slightly, but the lateral lower incisors betray no evidence of forward projection, and the central lower incisors are not even vertical as in most races of mankind, but are directed slightly backwards, as sometimes occurs in man. Owing to these remarkably human characters displayed by the deciduous dentition, when contour tracings of the upper jaw are made, it is found that the jaw and the teeth, as a whole, take up a parabolic arrangement comparable only with that presented by mankind amongst the higher primates.

Latitude angles to allow for the variation with angle of the ‘background scattering,’ and for a small angular displacement of the normal to the facets from the incident beam. If the incident electron beam were replaced by a beam of monochromatic X-rays of adjustable wave-length, very similar phenomena would, of course, be observed. At particular values of wave-length, sets of three or of six diffraction beams would emerge from the incident side of the target. On the right in Table I. (columns 5, 6 and 7) are set down data for the ten sets of X-ray beams of longest wave-length which would occur within the angular range of our observations.

They reported6 that the γ-rays were able to eject protons from the hydrogen atom. An analogous interaction, called the Compton effect, was already known to occur between γ-rays and electrons. The ability to eject protons led Curie and Joliot to deduce an energy for these γ-rays of about fifty million electron volts (MeV). When Chadwick read the issue of Comptes Rendus containing Curie and Joliot’s paper,6 his pipe supposedly fell out of his mouth! From Albert Einstein’s equation E ϭ mc2, the energy released in a nuclear reaction is given by the difference in mass between the starting materials and the products of the reaction.

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