By Ilia Stambler
This paintings explores the historical past of life-extensionism within the twentieth century. The time period life-extensionism is intended to explain an ideological method professing that radical lifestyles extension (far past the current lifestyles expectancy) is fascinating on moral grounds and is feasible to accomplish via wide awake medical efforts. This paintings examines significant traces of life-extensionist suggestion, in chronological order, over the process the 20 th century, whereas targeting relevant seminal works consultant of every pattern and interval, by means of such authors as Elie Metchnikoff, Bernard Shaw, Alexis Carrel, Alexander Bogomolets and others. Their works are thought of of their social and highbrow context, as elements of a bigger modern social and ideological discourse, linked to significant political upheavals and social and monetary styles. the next nationwide contexts are thought of: France (Chapter One), Germany, Austria, Romania and Switzerland (Chapter Two), Russia (Chapter Three), the united states and united kingdom (Chapter Four). This paintings pursues 3 significant goals. the 1st is to aim to spot and hint through the century a number of time-honored biomedical equipment whose improvement or functions have been linked to radical hopes for life-extension. past mere hopefulness, this paintings argues, the need to noticeably lengthen human existence usually constituted a powerful, notwithstanding hardly stated, motivation for biomedical learn and discovery. it will likely be proven that novel fields of biomedical technological know-how frequently had their foundation in far-reaching objectives of radical lifestyles extension. The dynamic dichotomy among reductionist and holistic tools could be emphasised. the second one objective is to enquire the ideological and socio-economic backgrounds of the proponents of radical existence extension, so as to verify how ideology and financial stipulations prompted the life-extensionists and the way it affected the technological know-how they pursued. For that objective, the biographies and key writings of a number of famous sturdiness advocates are studied. Their particular ideological premises (attitudes towards faith and development, pessimism or optimism concerning human perfectibility, and moral imperatives) in addition to their socioeconomic stipulations (the skill to behavior and disseminate study in a particular social or monetary milieu) are tested in an try to discover what stipulations have inspired or discouraged life-extensionist concept. This learn argues for the inherent adjustability of life-extensionism, as a specific kind of clinical company, to specific widely used kingdom ideologies. The 3rd, extra normal, goal is to gather a wide check in of life-extensionist works, and, in keeping with that check in, to set up universal qualities and pursuits definitive of life-extensionism, resembling valuation of lifestyles and fidelity, regardless of all of the variety of tools and ideologies professed. This paintings will give a contribution to the certainty of utmost expectancies linked to biomedical development which have been scarcely investigated through biomedical background.
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Additional resources for A History of Life-Extensionism in the Twentieth Century
Being well established financially, Lumière was not only able to endow medical institutions and charities (such as the Hôtel-Dieu Hospital in Lyon), but also to freely pursue his own clinical and basic studies. In 1896 he set up the Lumière Laboratory (among others sponsoring Alexis Carrel’s first experiments on blood vessels suture). The laboratory became the Lumière Clinic in 1910 and further expanded into the interdisciplinary Lumière Institute in 1930. 155 In Sénilité et Rajeunissement (Aging and Rejuvenation, 1932), Auguste Lumière somewhat regretfully noted that before the age of 40, due to the preoccupation with the “industrial, technical, administrative and commercial” affairs of the Lumière Company, he had little time for instruction in biomedicine.
Contemporaries met Brown-Séquard’s suggestions with mixed admiration and distrust. Some critics attacked the author personally. ”94 Other criticisms were more scientifically grounded. Thus, Dr. Amédée Dumontpallier (1826-1899) noted in 1889 that the results of Brown-Séquard’s experiment may be due to a non-specific stimulation: “M. ”95 In other words, no matter what you inject, the body will respond by general stimulation. Another, the most common, objection against BrownSéquard’s experiments, was that the results were possibly due to auto-suggestion.
10. Masculine Forever – Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) Among the methods of glandular supplementation practiced in the first quarter of the century, the sex glands were by far the most important targets. The energy expended on sex played a central part in the bio-economic models of aging. ”86 The replenishment of the sexual “active principle” has been deeply rooted in the humoralist tradition. The idea of “gerocomia” (literally “care of the aged,” involving the prolongation of life by proximity to young healthy individuals, or sexual stimulation) goes back at least two thousand years.