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By Günther Ludwig

Written within the culture of G. Ludwig’s groundbreaking works, this booklet goals to elucidate and formulate extra exactly the primary principles of actual theories. by way of introducing a uncomplicated descriptive language of easy shape, within which it truly is attainable to formulate recorded proof, ambiguities of actual theories are kept away from up to attainable. during this technique the sphere of physics that are meant to be defined through a thought relies on easy thoughts merely, i.e. innovations that may be defined with no idea. during this context the authors introduce a brand new suggestion of idealization and overview the method of gaining knowledge of new innovations. they think that, while the theories are formulated inside of an axiomatic foundation, suggestions are available to many tricky difficulties reminiscent of the translation of actual theories, the kin among theories in addition to the advent of actual options. The booklet addresses either physicists and philosophers of technology and will inspire the reader to give a contribution to the knowledge of the lasting middle of actual wisdom concerning the genuine buildings of the area.

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Well-formed” assemblies of signs, logic, and set theory. ). In order to obtain a more comprehensive mathematical language responding to our needs we proceed as follows: (i) We add to M T two relations: for every property p of Bl , a formal relation p(x); and for every relation r of Bl , a formal relation r(x1 , . . , xn , α). The relations p, r are new constants added to M T . ) With this enrichment, – the natural sentence of the basic language Bl ‘the object a has the property p ’ corresponds to the formal sentence of the enriched M T ‘p(a)’; – the natural sentence of the basic language Bl ‘between the objects a1 , a2 , .

Reference - a, b, α - ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ............. representation - between a1 , a2 , α, there is the distance relation δ(a1 , a2 , α) - Reality level Fig. 2. Semantic relations of reference and representation An adequate representation of a whole domain of facts requires a system of concepts and propositions. Relation of Denotation The relation of denotation holds between some members at the linguistic level and their correlates at the reality level.

Properties of objects - or - relations between objects -). The schema given in Fig. 2 summarizes these relations. Conceptual level “between a1 , a2 , α, there is the distance relation δ(a1 , a2 , α)” ... ... . . ... .. . ... ... . .. ... ... . ... ........ ....... reference - a, b, α - ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ............. representation - between a1 , a2 , α, there is the distance relation δ(a1 , a2 , α) - Reality level Fig. 2. Semantic relations of reference and representation An adequate representation of a whole domain of facts requires a system of concepts and propositions.

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