By Joe W. Trotter, Earl Lewis, Tera W. Hunter
From the early years of the African slave alternate to the US, blacks have lived and laboured in city environments. but the transformation of rural blacks right into a predominantly city humans is a comparatively fresh phenomenon - merely in the course of global warfare One did African americans circulation into towns in huge numbers, and basically in the course of global conflict did extra blacks dwell in towns than within the nation-state. through the early Nineteen Seventies, blacks had not just made the transition from rural to city settings, yet have been nearly lightly allotted among the towns of the North and the West at the one hand and the South at the different. of their quest for complete citizenship rights, monetary democracy, and unencumber from an oppressive rural prior, black southerners grew to become to city migration and employment within the nation's commercial quarter as a brand new 'Promised Land' or 'Flight from Egypt'. in an effort to remove darkness from those modifications in African American city lifestyles, this booklet brings jointly city background; modern social, cultural, and coverage examine; and comparative views on race, ethnicity, and nationality inside and throughout nationwide boundaries.
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Extra info for African American Urban Experience: Perspectives from the Colonial Period to the Present
Even though the antebellum South was dominated by the plantation system and slave-owning oligarchy, it was nevertheless a diverse region with a complex social hierarchy. By 1860 the South's free population totaled eight million whites. Just below the planters on the social hierarchy was a middle class, about two -thirds of which was composed of white yeomen farmers, craftsmen, mechanics, professionals, and commercial interests. Near the bottom of the pyramid were nearly one million poor whites.
In 1745 and again in 1747, Boston men, angered by the appearance of " press gangs," mounted what one report called a "riotous, tumultuous assem bly of foreign seamen, servants, Negroes and other persons of mean and vile condition" in violent resistance. I? Violent resistance to perce ived oppression was not unique to Boston. Throughout the mid 18th century, impressment sparked interracial resistance in the major port cities. l-' Resistance was not limited to New England. Protest also exploded in New York City and Norfolk, Virginia.
Remini , The R evolutionary Age ofA ndrew jackson (New York: H arper & Row, Publish ers, 1976), 15 . Horton and Horton, In Hope of Liberty. CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIAL SLAVERY: LINKING THE PERIPHERY AND THE CORE RONALD 1. LEWIS INTRODUCTION Industrial slavery seems destined to forever occupy a place at the periphery of the discourse on American slavery. The Old South was, after all, overwhelmingly a rural, plantation economy, and industry is generally associated with urban places. The fact that only about 5 percent of the region's slave population labored in industrial pursuits at any given time is sufficient to understand why industrial slavery has generated relatively little scholarship.