Download Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation by Arild Angelsen, David Kaimowitz PDF

By Arild Angelsen, David Kaimowitz

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This booklet has been constructed from a workshop on Technological switch in agriculture and tropical deforestation organised via the guts for overseas Forestry learn and held in Costa Rica in March, 1999. It explores how intensification of agriculture impacts tropical deforestation utilizing case stories from diversified nation-states, utilizing diversified agricultural items and applied sciences and in differing demographic events and industry stipulations. assistance can also be given on destiny agricultural examine and extension efforts.

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23 Farm-level Effects Farmers respond to economic opportunities. They allocate their scarce resources (land, labour and capital) to meet their objectives. These objectives include things like ensuring family survival, maximizing income or minimizing risk. Available technology, assets, market conditions, land tenure and other factors constrain the choices farmers have available. Technological change may modify these constraints and provide incentives that encourage farmers to allocate their resources in a different manner.

Labour increases, farmers may use more land instead of labour, which implies greater deforestation. 5. Conclusions In this chapter, we have discussed how economic theory predicts that technological change will affect deforestation. We conclude that the impact will depend on: (i) the type of technical change; (ii) the presence of market imperfections; (iii) the extent to which farmers can substitute between factors; (iv) the way households balance work against leisure; (v) whether the technology affects the intensive or extensive production systems; (vi) how much people migrate in response to regional income differentials; and (vii) how steep the demand and supply curves for outputs and inputs are.

It is worth emphasizing, though, that in real life many extensive systems are based on tree crops and provide some of the same environmental services as natural forests. As long as we have perfect markets, technological change in the intensive sector will not affect the extensive frontier. Farmers treat the two systems as separate activities and make their decisions about how to maximize their profits in each system without taking into account the other system. Perfect markets imply that the two systems do not compete with each other for inputs.

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