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Discussions on akrasia (lack of keep watch over, or weak spot of will) in Greek philosophy were particularily brilliant and severe for the prior 20 years. common tales that awarded Socrates because the thinker who easily denied the phenomenon, and Plato and Aristotle as rehabilitating it straightforwardly opposed to Socrates, were challenged in lots of other ways. development on these demanding situations, this collective offers new, and occasionally antagonistic methods of analyzing recognized in addition to extra ignored texts. Its thirteen contributions, written via specialists within the box, hide the complete background of Greek ethics, from Socrates to Plotinus, via Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics (Cleanthes, Chrysippus, Epictetus).

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Separation is not, however, the only feature Aristotle points to in differentiating Plato from Socrates; and perhaps other of his claims are on firmer ground. Aristotle also claims, for example, that for Socrates, unlike Plato, all universals are sensible, that is, are sensible properties. Now Plato, as we have seen, accepts NR [non-reducibility]; forms are nonsensible properties, properties non-reducible to, and indefinable in terms of, sensible properties’ (Fine, 2003, 298). It is metaphysics, then, that still seems to divide Plato from Socrates, for Fine.

It would be a mistake, however, to infer that anyone who lacks the craft of measurement is doomed to be taken in by objects that have acquired the power of appearance. In the Apology (37a6–7) Socrates informs the jury that he ‘is convinced that [he] has not done wrong to anyone,’ including presumably himself. We can infer from this that Socrates was never taken in by a dunamis tou phainomenou. Surely Socrates experiences appetites and passions; it is just that in his case his appetites and passions never caused him to pursue something because it appeared good when it was not.

It is metaphysics, then, that still seems to divide Plato from Socrates, for Fine. 8 And which he seems to regard simply as false, and therefore uninteresting, and/or a mere historical relic. g. ). Plato’s mistake about universals (as Aristotle conceives it) is, by contrast, interesting and important. g. Penner (2003) and Rowe (2003). 9 For one splendidly clear statement of the general outline of the theory in question, see Taylor (2000), 62–3. This is, I suppose, what Thomas C. Brickhouse and Nicholas Smith (2002) have called—somewhat puzzlingly: see the second paragraph of this note—‘the traditional account of Socratic intellectualism’ (22).

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